Fortran is short for Formula Translation and is amongst the oldest programming languages, FORTRAN is the very oldest one, and it was developed in 1957 by John Backus.
And its basic need for it being designed was for it to write the programs for the computers that are higher performances which have been suited majorly for scientific computing, numeric computing, and other scientific applications which deal with very extensive computations of mathematics. The design was made to translate the mathematics formula to coding form mainly.
The History Of FORTRAN
Before FORTRAN was invented, then the machine/assembly code was used by programmers in developing very difficult programs, and they were time wasting too. It was the reason programmers decided to invent FORTRAN that was an independent machine, very easy to learn, making easy mathematical calculations, and the program is versatile meaning it can be used in several applications.
Because coding with FORTRAN was very easy, the programs with FORTRAN language was written by the programmers very fast by over five times compared to the other machine codes. The very common FORTRAN versions are FORTRAN 77 and FORTRAN IV. In 1966, FORTRAN IV was made the USASI standard whereas FORTRAN 77 became the USASI standards in 1978. When it reached the early of 1990, the programmers developed a very new ANSI and ISO FORTRAN standards, and they called it FORTRAN 90.
Characteristics Of FORTRAN
• The FORTRAN language has simple language that is easily learned and understood.
• A language is an independent machine meaning its program may be transported in various machines without any difficulties.
• FORTRAN expresses complicated mathematical functions by the very natural ways it offers.
• The language has an efficient execution since only an efficiency decrease of 20% when its compared to machine code or assembly.
• The FORTRAN language has a great storage location where programmers can control storage allocation programs.
• The language has a code layout freedom; hence programmers do not have to layout codes in their defined rigid columns when compared to machine or assembly language.